Treatment of allergic diseases is rather complex and consists of several stages: therapeutic and preventive measures, treatment of an acute process, and basic therapy. The success in treatment can be achieved only by paying enough attention to each of the phases of treatment.
Treatment of allergic diseases in addition to treatment and prevention involves symptomatic and pathogenetic therapies. One of the basic antiallergic drugs for the treatment of allergic diseases is a blocker of H1-histamine receptors. It is widely used in anti-allergy practice and plays the most important role of histamine - the main mediator of allergic reactions. Three generations of these drugs are known today. Preparations of II (cetirizine, loratadine, Ebastine, etc.) and III (fexofenadine, desloratadine) generations have several advantages over drugs of I generation due to their high selectivity, duration of therapeutic effect and having no side effects of (sedation, anticholinergic effects, tachyphylaxis, etc.)
In the treatment of allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis ketotifen is also used, which in addition to antihistamine effect has a stabilizing effect on mast cell membrane. The oral form of nedocromil sodium is used to treat food allergies.
As a drug that increases the ability of serum to bind histamine, gistaglobulin is widely used which is a combined preparation of normal human immunoglobulin and histamine hydrochloride. During the treatment, the level of gistaglobulins antihistamine antibodies increases, therefore reducing the response to histamine and decreasing its release from mast cells.
During the treatment of bronchial asthma antagonists of ß2-adrenergic receptors are used. They can be of two types – of short-lasting (salbutamol, terbutaline, fenoterol) and long-lasting (salmeterol, formoterol, clenbuterol) effect. Drugs of this group reduce spasms of smooth muscles of the bronchi and secretion. Antagonists of ß - and ß2-receptors respectively are non-selective and therefore may have a negative effect on the heart muscle. Theophylline, used to treat asthma, has bronchodilatory and expectorant properties, and positively influence the contractility of the respiratory muscles.