Cholesterol - is a lipid which is mainly produced by liver and is essential for normal body functioning. Cholesterol is present in the outer layer (plasma membrane) of each cell of our body and has many functions. It is a waxy steroid and is transported in the blood plasma of all animals. This is the main sterol synthesized by animals, but small amounts are also synthesized in plants and fungi.
If your cholesterol is still high after doing everything mentioned above, your doctor may prescribe medicines to lower cholesterol.
These may include the following:
- Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) - these blockers of the enzyme in the liver produce cholesterol. In this case the task is to reduce cholesterol level to less than 4 mmol / l to 2 mmol / l for LDL cholesterol. Statins are useful for the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis. Side effects may include constipation, headache, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Examples of statins are atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin and rosuvastatin.
- Aspirin - should not be given to patients younger than 16 years.
- Drugs to lower triglycerides - a fibric acid derivatives, and include gemfibrozil, fenofibrate and clofibrate.
- Niacin - a B vitamin that exists in various foods. You can get very high doses only by prescription. Niacin reduces the levels of both LDL and HDL. Side effects may include itching, headache, flushing, and ringing in the ears of (mostly very mild, if it occurs).
- Antihypertensive drugs - if you have high blood pressure, your doctor may prescribe angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor angiotensin II (ARBs), diuretics, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers.
In some cases, patient can be assigned for inhibitors of absorption (suction), cholesterol (ezetimibe) and substances that increase the excretion of bile acids. They have more side effects and require a certain level of patient’s awareness (the so-called medical competence of patients). The doctor must make sure that the drugs are taken in accordance with all instructions.