In 1982, scientists were able to figure out, that the main cause of AIDS is a virus that infects cells of the human immune system, making them unable to defend the body against disease. The second decade of human existance we try to fight this primitive, but the crafty microbe - the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Immunodeficiency virus belongs to the lentivirus (slow virus), a subgroup of retroviruses. It is depicted as an anti-submarine mine, which is located on the surface of glycoprotein "mushrooms" that serve as a master key for the virus to penetrate cells of human blood. Although the human cell is 100 000 times carries more genetic information, the virus of HIV gains the victory capturing the cells and destroying them.
The salvation from the virus means that infection occurs only in certain situations, and it can be prevented. Even if HIV has penetrated the body, modern medicine is capable of stopping its reproduction.
All registered cases of HIV infection in the world are distributed in the ways of infection as follows:
- sexual transmission - 70-80%;
- injecting drug users - 5.10%;
- occupational infection of health workers - less than 0.01%;
- transfusion of infected blood - 3-5%;
- by pregnant or nursing mother to child - 5.10%.
In different countries and regions different ways of transmission are dominated (homosexual, heterosexual, injecting drug use).
Many also say that the AIDS problem is not only medical but also psychological and social problem.
People living with HIV, become literally outcasts, some people are even afraid to talk to the people sick with AIDS. Most of the time people have a stereotypic idea, that the people disease with HIV/AIDS are either drug addicts or prostitutes, that they deserve such a destiny and unworthy of simple sympathy.