Migraine is a neurological disorder, the most frequent and characteristic symptom of which are episodic (or regular) strong and painful headaches in one (rarely both) side of the head. Migraine is a chronic disorder with episodic exacerbations. Migraine is a fairly common disease. 17.6% of women and 6% of men suffer from it. Incidence of migraine falls on the most productive years of life - from 25 to 55 years. 90% of people with migraine suffer their first attack before the age of 40.
There are two main types of migraine: migraine without aura and migraine with aura.
During the aura stereotypic sensations occurs just prior to pain onset: flashing before eyes, flashing lights, distorted perception of the world, numbness, unusual sensations in the stomach, etc.
Migraine may be provoked the following factors: stress, nervous and physical stress, nutritional factors (cheese, chocolate, nuts, fish), alcohol (mostly beer, red wine, champagne), hormonal factors (menstruation, oral contraceptives), sleep ( deficiency or excess), weather factors (change of weather, climate change).
Clinically, migraine without aura is characterized by regular bouts of headache, lasting from 4 to 72 hours. The pain has usually unilateral localization (localized in one half of the head), it is of moderate or high intensity and has a pulsating character. The pain increases with physical and mental activity and is often accompanied by nausea / vomiting, increased sensitivity to light (photophobia), and/or sounds (phonophobia).
Treatment consists of a migraine drug and non-pharmacological prevention (avoidance of factors that provoke migraine and prophylactic treatment), as well as relief of acute migraine attacks. Prophylactic treatment usually does not prevent migraine attacks for 100%, but helps to mitigate symptoms and reduce the severity of seizures.