Surgery (chier - hand, ergon - action) in Greek means needlework, craft. Currently, however, surgeons are unlikely to enjoy such an understanding of their profession. If the diagnosis is inaccurate, incorrect indications and contraindications to surgery, even a perfectly executed surgery will not bring relief to the patient and, conversely, can lead to undesirable effects, and sometimes to death of the patient. In addition to that, the success of treatment is determined by the preoperative preparation of a full and adequate treatment in the postoperative period, which requires considerable knowledge, clinical pharmacology and other sciences, that require the ability to recognize complications and to deal with them.
Acute appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix cecum. This is the most common surgical pathology that occurs among 4-5 persons per 1,000 population. Most often the disease occurs at the age of 20 to 40 years; besides, women suffer 2 times more often than men.
Gastro-intestinal bleeding is a common complication of gastric and duodenal ulcer, chronic disease with relapsing cyclical, prone to progression, which has no clearly defined etiology, in comparison to symptomatic ulcers.
Acute intestinal obstruction is one of the most dangerous pathological conditions encountered in abdominal surgery. For intestinal obstruction (more precisely - intestinal obstruction) is characterized by a violation of the passage of intestinal contents in the direction from the stomach to the anus.
Acute cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder which has acute bacterial origin. Acute cholecystitis is the most common disease of the abdominal cavity and is second to acute appendicitis. The high incidence is associated with increased frequency of gallstone disease (GSD) and an increase of life expectancy.
Acute pancreatitis is destructive and inflammatory lesion of the pancreas that is based on processes of autoferment necrobiosis and necrosis with possible endogenous infection and involvement in the pathological process of retroperitoneal tissue, abdominal organs, and systems extraperitoneal localization.
Peritonitis is an inflammation of the peritoneum caused by bacterial or chemical agent. The most common cause of peritonitis is a complication of local infectious-inflammatory processes that are inflammatory and destructive disease of the abdominal cavity.